Bishops in Japan have decided to once again divide the two-campus national Japan Catholic Seminary into two seminaries, reversing the merger between Tokyo and Fukuoka that took place in 2009. 3, May 27, 2013. Asia Japan's 'nationalist' school books teach a different view of history. Chilly. Asahi Shinbun, 2 May 2015. With the likes of Donald Trump and Vladimir Putin rising to power, the 21st century hasn't escaped nationalism. : 41). In a similar way, in France statues to Vercingetorix, the celebrated opponent of Julius Cesar in the Gallic Wars (58-52 BCE), were erected around the same time. Not least due to the fact that the institution of the Tennō as such was preserved after the war, signs of a re-emergence of the prewar ideology of a sacred Japan with origins dating back to the “age of the gods” became discernible in the 1960s, for example when the prewar national holiday marking the (mythological) foundation of Japan by Jimmu Tennō was re-introduced, albeit under a different name (Empire Day or kigensetsu before the war and National Foundation Day or kenkoku kinen no hi since 1966). Europe remains a battleground between nationalist forces, conventional governments and parties that cleave to broadly liberal positions. Historians are almost wholly absent from the ranks of historical revisionists. “Today is the true test of ‘Nationalism’. Also a prolific writer with more than 175 books published between 1987 and 2015 to his name, Ōkawa is strongly opposed to Chinese and South Korean approaches to the history of the war in East Asia. Compared to its European counterparts, Japan’s imperial family is at once more unassuming and more withdrawn from the people it represents. … The Japanese are a righteous people. became established as a core element of nationhood and explains the strong religious character that came to mark modern Japan’s national narrative. Support is available in English, Chinese, Korean and Japanese. In the Korean context, this encompasses various movements throughout history to maintain the Korean cultural identity, history, and ethnicity (or "race"). Opinion advertisement by Sakurai Yoshiko’s Japan Institute for National Fundamentals. Also because westernization included colonialism, expansionism, capitalism, and nationalism. In his most recent book, he offers readers a wide range of conspiracy theories, praising Prime Minister Abe and Russian President Vladimir Putin as “flag-bearers of nationalism” while criticizing European governments as well as the U.S. as promoters of globalization and enemies of Japan (Watanabe and Mabuchi 2014: 142). What we see in the world today is ostensibly the latter: aggressive, top-down nationalism where individuals and groups have little organic agency or innovation. In fact, the question of whether the nation (or nation-state) has a venerable history – or, by contrast, is a modern construct – has grown directly out of the prominence given to history in national/ist thinking. With a market share of less than 1%, the group lost support and eventually split up. In 2007, she founded the Japan Institute for National Fundamentals. Pandemic-era central banking is creating bubbles everywhere, Episode 78: Japan's foreign residents are trapped — Part 3, Directory of who’s who in the world of business in Japan. On that day, the foundation of … Edited by Currin V. Shields. See here and the YouTube “Kent Channel” for his statements on history. Japan 2020. Nishio Kanji and Kaji Nobuyuki (2016), “Kōtaishi-sama ni kangen mōshiagemasu,” WiLL 6/2016, pp. Kyodo News Plus is an online publication delivering the latest news from Japan together with those stories from around the globe in which Japan plays a key role. ... Abe sees two main crises in Japan today: the North Korea threat and the aging population. Nationalism and nativism are roiling politics on every continent. 1–21.Bix, Herbert (2008), “Tamogami's World: Japan's Top Soldier Reignites Conflict Over the Past,” Internet:, John S. (1997): Japanese Historians and the National Myths, 1600-1945: the Age of the Gods and Emperor Jinmu. by Sakiko Maruyama In the class, we learned there are two nationalisms; one is the ethnic nationalism and another is the civic nationalism. 3-5.Sasaki, Takeshi (2001), “A New Era of Nationalism?”, Journal of Japanese Trade and Industry 20/1, pp. The author of the novel Eien no Zero (“The Eternal Zero;” a movie version was extremely popular in Japan in 2013/14), Hyakuta has claimed that the Nanjing Massacre of 1937/38 is a Chinese fabrication and that the Americans fabricated Japanese war crimes in order to cover up atrocities committed by their own troops during the war (Asahi Shinbun, February 4, 2014). (...) The most important factor that has contributed to the formation of the Japanese national character (kunigara) and the qualities of the Japanese people is nothing other than the spiritual unity created by the Imperial House. By Nadeem Shad for The Diplomat December 14, 2014 In Japan, the 1870s saw the creation of the cult of Jimmu, the legendary first Emperor (Tennō) of Japan (Brownlee 1997). The coronavirus pandemic has given rise to stronger authoritarianism, populism and nationalism, threatening to harm rights-based systems. In prewar Japan, moral education (shūshin) was a central element of “national education;” as a consequence of its role in mobilizing the population for the war effort, it was abolished under the Basic Law of Education in 1947. On 1 May, Japan welcomed a new emperor. Korean nationalism refers to nationalism among the Korean people. 10-13. A domestic tourism campaign promoted by Japan's Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga may have contributed to a sharp increase in coronavirus infection cases in the country, … Since at least the mid-20th century, the dominant strand of contemporary Korean nationalism, at least in regards to South Korea, tends to be romantic in nature (specifically ethnic or … Today’s China has certainly not come that far. Kits. Therefore, since 2007, controversial materials have been distributed to elementary school students titled “Notes of the Heart” (kokoro no nōto), the contents of which is a mix of simple instructions regarding “manners,” of lessons on the importance of “tradition” and the family, as well as guidance regarding values such as honesty, diligence, compassion and solidarity. Sven Saaler is Associate Professor of Modern Japanese History at Sophia University in Tokyo. It was then that the fear of communism created more nationalistic feelings, as well as that certain movements wanted Japan to rule East Asia. A reform of the Basic Law of Education in 2007 resulted in the inclusion of “deepening love for the nation” as a central objective of education, a change that has influenced the contents of history and morals textbooks in recent years and which has been identified as a sign of a resurgence of prewar approaches regarding the education of nationhood. While the Japanese media remained relatively silent about the imperial visit, the English-speaking media reported intensively on the event, but failed to mention that Jimmu was a mythological figure (ibid. It was as early as this “opening up” that nationalism flared against foreign influence. National Team. If the coverage given in daily newspapers, weekly and monthly journals, and books dealing with questions of nationalism in modern Japan is anything to go by, contemporary interest in historical issues is buoyant. In June 2014, LDP Tokyo Prefectural assemblyman Suzuki Akihiro shouted sexist remarks at a female assembly member, telling her “to get married” and asking whether she was “not able to have a baby.” See The Guardian, 24 June 2014. Lessons In Nationalism And Modernity: What India Can Learn From Japan And Korea Like India and Pakistan, Korea and Japan hated each other. Boeing 777-289 Samurai … about Japanese history (Maeno 2003; on the backgrounds of these individuals see Saaler 2005), TV entertainers such as Kent Gilbert12 and representatives of other professions. They also failed to mention that no serious historian believes that the tomb so designated is really that of an emperor named Jimmu. London and New York: Routledge.RKI (Rekishi Kentō Iinkai) (ed.) Nationalism in Japan in the 19th century (1800's) was not a big problem until the 20th century. Archive. Chika Mori and Lee Jay Walker. Please consult our event calendar for exact dates. Tokyo: Tentensha.Saaler, Sven (2005), Politics, Memory and Public Opinion. The emphasis on the “eternally unbroken imperial line” (bansei ikkei) beginning with Amaterasu and the foundation of the Japanese Empire by her great-great-grandson Jimmu in 660 B.C. MEXT.McNeill, David and Adam Lebowitz (2007), “Hammering Down the Educational Nail: Abe Revises the Fundamental law of Education,” The Asia-Pacific Journal, Vol. Louisville, KY (40203) Today. Then, in the early 20th century, Japan annexed Korea. “Ceremony to Celebrate the 2675th Anniversary of the Foundation of the Nation in Tokushima” (Tokushima, Bizan Park, February 11, 2015). In fact, as Professor Wang Jisi says: “In those days, Japan was an ‘institution’ in the international order, while China was rejected and discriminated against by the West … : 111; 136; cf. In reality it is akin to Japan’s version of the Tea Party: Like the Tea Party in the United States, it is a product of deep conservative anxieties about the future. The protest is the latest signal that China’s expanding economic clout, growing political assertiveness and increasing military might are injecting a surge of nationalism into Japan’s mainstream. Mullins 2012b), and the Association of Diet Members Advocating Worship at the Yasukuni Shrine. Although the KKK textbook is mainly in use in schools in these two cities, the two largest municipalities the country, during the selection process that took place in summer 2015, a number of cities in Ishikawa Prefecture, including the city of Kanazawa, also adopted the KKK/Ikuhōsha textbook for the first time. Zenkoku Kōdō Iinkai (Do your best, Japan! Nationalism emerged in East Asia as a result of the influx of Western-derived political thought in the nineteenth century, but its formation drew heavily on pre-existing notions of identity. Anthony Smith has emphasized the importance of mythology to the establishment of ethnic-national identities (e.g., Smith 1996: 586). It is estimated that around 50 million Yen were spent by Tamogami on karaoke, nightclub visits and golfing. Japan National Tourism Organization (JNTO) operates a visitor hotline 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Although Masumi was urged to resign from the municipal assembly (Japan Times, 3 December 2015), he is still a member of the assembly (last accessed on 10 May 2016). ), Dōtoku no kyōkaka de zugamerareru kodomotachi. A provision of the law establishes that when a national holiday falls on a Sunday, the next working day shall become a public holiday, known as furikae kyūjitsu (振替休日, "compensatory public holiday", literally "substitute … While since the 1960s ministerial guidelines have stipulated that “moral education aims to develop a Japanese citizen,”16 it remains to be seen how the needs of Japan’s growing foreign population can be reconciled with ministerial directives to deepen “love for the nation” through dōtoku education. Tokyo: Asuka Shinsha.Watanabe Teiji (2009), Yudaya wa Nihon ni nani o shita ka. Japan: The land of the rising nationalism Show all 2 Most Tokyo districts will fortunately never experience Makoto Sakurai and his noisy flag-waving … Since conservatives close to Prime Minister Shinzo Abe joined his Cabinet in a reshuffle last month, there has been speculation that visits to war-related Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo by Cabinet ministers may resume after a halt of 2½ years. Distinguishing between elite maneuverings and popular attitudes, in this article I first identify what I consider to be the major topics of current nationalist discourse, and then introduce the chief proponents of strengthening of nationalist attitudes in society. NAGANO, Japan - Two-time defending Olympic men's champion Yuzuru Hanyu delivered a dramatic and nearly flawless free skate on Saturday to win his first Japan national championship in five years. It was ... Chinese nationalism: The dog that barks in the night. Nationalism doesn't have to be a dirty word. I conclude that in light of a political establishment tarnished by never-ending scandals, attempts to force moral education into the curriculum as a way of fostering nationalist and patriotic attitudes2 among young people is a particularly duplicitous undertaking, discrediting the very notions so highly praised by its advocates. Call for tourist information or assistance in the case of accidents and emergencies including COVID-19. The title of the book, which appears on the cover in English as “Japan! 27-43.--- (2014), “Could Hosokawa Morihiro’s political comeback restore sanity to Japanese politics?”, (2016), “Nationalism and History in Contemporary Japan,” Kingston, Jeff (ed. From Japan 050-3816-2787 . While the numbers claimed for Ōkawa’s sect makes his writings potentially explosive, his party’s poor showing in recent elections illustrates the limits of neonationalistic rhetoric in contemporary Japan10. In a book titled “Tamogami’s Army of the Land of the Gods,” he claimed that Japan should have the right to collective self-defense and should arm itself with nuclear weapons, aircraft carriers, AEGIS destroyers armed with nuclear missiles, and long-range bombers (Tamogami 2010). Since the intrusion by foreign powers in the late 19th century, Koreans have had to construct their identity in ways that pitted them against foreigners. For a while, it seemed that the historical revisionist movement had run out of steam. These variants served to preserve the integrity and stability of the Japanese nation in the postwar period while avoiding any reference to the “divine origins” of the nation. Notwithstanding this existential threat to contemporary Japan, the arguments for historical revisionism have been more strongly advocated in the public sphere in recent years than ever before. This essay is a revised and updated version of Saaler 2016. Wrestling: World champ Kenichiro Fumita captures 3rd Japan national title KYODO NEWS - Dec 20, 2020 - 18:18 | Sports , All Tokyo Olympic team member Kenichiro Fumita, the reigning 60-kilogram Greco-Roman world champion, won his third national title and his first in two years at Japan's national wrestling championships on Sunday. Like any political ideology, nationalism has many faces and some are beneficial and worthy of affirmation. 12, Issue 13, No. 2, April 27, 2015.Tokoro Tsutomu (2016), “Kaji, Nishio ryōshi e no gimon,” WiLL 7/2016, pp. Also since the nineteenth century, historians in many countries have been busy constructing historical narratives that locate the roots of a particular nation in antiquity in an attempt to strengthen the nation’s claim to legitimacy. Smith 1996). Asia Today: Japan halts all foreign arrivals over UK variant National. (...) While the royal families of other countries have achieved their position through the use of military or financial power and integrated the state through the exercise of power and authority, the Japanese imperial family has its origins in the age of the myths and, based on the spirit of the Japanese people (Nihonjin no kokoro), it has become the central force making for national unity. The idea of nationalism as a “civil religion,” emphasizing the religious foundations of national/ist thinking as seen in public rituals, symbols, ceremonies and the creation of sacred places and heroes, takes us in a similar direction (cf. TOKYO. Without doubt, they have the potential to contribute to the growth of nationalist and xenophobic attitudes in Japanese society. Since 1965 Watanabe has authored 612 books – an average of 11-12 books (!) The March First Movement is noteworthy as it surpassed the Wilsonian ideas of that time. See, for example, SAPIO 12/2014 (“Chūkan tainichi ‘rekishi sensō’”), Voice 3/2015 (“Nikkan ‘rekishi sensō’”), Voice 1/2016 (“Rekishi sensō, Nihon no gyakushū”). Japan News: Tokyo and national Covid-19 crisis is increasing. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Japan national football team kits. Japan observes 16 national holidays throughout the year. The official site of JNTO is your ultimate Japan guide with tourist information for Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, and other top Japan holiday destinations. A former television announcer, Sakurai is a frequent contributor to journals and still appears on TV as a commentator, particularly on the private Channel Sakura, a major outlet for neonationalist pundits11. In 2016, teachers are struggling with the reality that they are not trained to teach morals education, and with the fact that – as opposed to mathematics, natural sciences, or linguistics – there is no academic basis for moral education (i.e. However, nationalism did not disappear ¬¬– it merely changed its shape. While apologetic writings such as Hayashi Fusao’s infamous “Affirmation of the Greater East Asian War” (Daitōa sensō kōtei-ron) had some influence from the 1960s, since the 1990s an ever-increasing number of pundits and politicians have been raising their voices in the public arena to denounce critical views of the war and demanding that the historical narrative of modern Japan be purged of its “dark stains.” Most importantly, they are highly critical of the idea that the Asia-Pacific War was a war of aggression. Advertised as a means of “making the Japanese DNA (sic) awaken,” the KKK history textbook itself is relatively anodyne in terms of its content, but the civics textbook shows a high degree of conformity with the current agenda of the LDP under Prime Minister Abe. München: Iudicium.--- (2009), “Men in Metal: Representations of the Nation in Public Space in Meiji Japan, 1868-1912,” Comparativ 19, pp. We could add to their number scholars of German literature such as Nishio Kanji, the educational scholar Fujioka Nobukatsu, manga writer Kobayashi Yoshinori, business leaders such as Maeno Tōru, author of a book purporting to tell “the truth”(!) A second central feature of nationalist writings on history is their treatment of Japan’s wartime past. Likewise, a day sandwiched between two national holidays is turned into a holiday. A number of mayors with nationalist leanings have pushed for the KKK text in their municipalities, where decisions regarding textbook selection are made (rather than in individual schools); they include Hashimoto Tōru, former mayor of Osaka, and Nakada Hiroshi, former mayor of Yokohama. For example, Hata Ikuhiko, a well-regarded historian – who has, however, minimized the impact of the Nanjing Massacre – criticized the prize-winning (!) While educational guidelines are extremely strict regarding political education in schools, which should be absolutely non-partisan19, a 2015 dōtoku textbook issued by the Ministry of Education itself clearly promotes the agenda of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party. In order to finance the vastly increased defense expenditure this would entail, he suggested cutting the child allowance (ibid. Nationalist pundits are increasingly joining the efforts to strengthen belief in the historicity of Emperor Jimmu. Deflation fears fueled in Japan over prospect of slow wage growth amid pandemic, Japan seeing results from efforts to export education, Japan to start random PCR testing to gauge infections in cities. In his famous 1882 lecture on the question “What is the Nation?”, Ernest Renan argued that “nations … are something fairly new in history. 190-193.Tsuruta Atsuko (2014), “‘Watashitachi no dōtoku’ o yomitoku,” in Kodomo to Kyōkasho Zenkoku Netto 21 (ed. Tokyo: Bungei Shunjū.--- (2014), Hatsugen goroku. Opladen: C. W. Leske.Repeta, Lawrence (2016), “Nationalism and the Law: Japan’s Tale of Two Constitutions,” Kingston, Jeff (ed. The organization’s desire to steer Japanese education in a more nationalist direction is particularly evident in the materials for teachers distributed with the textbook. … The 2015 textbook “Our Morals” (Watashitachi no dōtoku) for elementary grade years 5 and 6 includes a two-page section explaining why rights and duties as defined in the Constitution have to be kept in balance, implicitly denying the notion that rights and freedoms are inherently based on natural law and instead insisting that they are conditional, dependent on the fulfillment of civic responsibilities (MEXT 2016: 124f). Soundbites tell the story of a roller-coaster year for Japan, from its Diet to its dohyō. Whether this will turn out to be the case largely depends on how successful Japan’s civic society, which is still rather critical of these developments, will be in mobilizing opposition to these disturbing trends and in mobilizing voters in future elections. Tokyo: Kōfuku no Kagaku Shuppan.--- (2015b), Nihonjin yo, rekishi sensō ni shōri seyo. The Europeans tried to push their thoughts and ideologies on other countries, sometimes by force. In the June 2016 edition of the bimonthly journal WiLL, in an article titled “The Geopolitics of Jimmu’s Conquest of the East,” self-styled “military journalist” Kaji Toshiki attempts to establish the historicity of Jimmu through an analysis of the military tactics employed during the first emperor’s alleged unification of Japan as recorded in the Japanese myths known as Kojiki and Nihon Shoki (Kaji 2016). Is not saying a word against the 28-year-awaited Babri Masjid verdict my nationalism, or is it not wondering … Diss., University of Toronto.Wakasa Kazutomo (2015a), Rekishi sensō no shōtai. Japanese nationalism (Japanese: 国粋主義, Hepburn: Kokusui shugi) is the nationalism that asserts that the Japanese are a monolithic nation with a single immutable culture, and promotes the cultural unity of the Japanese. The origin of National Foundation Day is New Year's Day in the traditional lunisolar calendar. The coronavirus (Covid-19) crisis in Japan is at its highest level in early 2021. 2013; Penney 2013). Across Japan, there are signs that the collective mood—long shaped by pangs of regret over World War II—is in the midst of a shift toward nationalism. Nihon ga motto suki ni naru. Tokyo: Ikuhōsha.Astley, Trevor (1995), “The Transformation of a Recent Japanese New Religion: Ōkawa Ryūhō and Kōfuku no Kagaku,” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 22/3-4, pp. One of the leaders of the movement of historical revisionism in the 1990s was a young parliamentarian named Abe Shinzō, Japan’s prime minister at the time of writing. Today 06:00 am JST Today | 06:31 am JST 56 Comments By Rocky Swift. 146-155.Kato, Norihiro (2014), “Japan’s right-wing stirrings,” The New York Times, 12 February 2014, p. 3.Kitaoka, Shin’ichi (2001), “Is Nationalism Intensifying in Japan?”, Journal of Japanese Trade and Industry 20/1, pp. He is also co-author of Impressions of an Imperial Envoy. Then, in the early 20th century, Japan annexed Korea. The influence of religious concepts in constructions of modern nationhood is not specific to Japan. In the late 1990s, an organization was formed to “rectify” history and civic education in Japan, the Society for History Textbook Reform (Atarashii Rekishi Kyōkasho o Tsukuru-kai; cf. Published by Ikuhōsha, part of the powerful Fuji Sankei Communications Group, the KKK textbook soon left its rival Tsukuru-kai publication trailing in terms of market share. Is standing up for the national anthem an indication of my love for the country? The policies espoused by Ōkawa and his party include doubling Japan’s population through child-friendly policies, a revision of the pacifist article 9 of Japan’s Constitution, an active military stance in face of a perceived threat from North Korea, and the nuclear armament8 of Japan. essay by General Tamogami mentioned above as being “of extremely low quality,” adding that “‘even a high school student’ can easily point out its mistakes” (Japan Times, April 14, 2016). Oxford: Polity.Tamogami Toshio (2010), Tamogami Shinkoku-gun. Tokyo: Sankei Shinbun Shuppansha.--- (2013), Abe Shinzō-ron. ... setting Japan on a course to become Asia’s first nation-state. ), Asian Nationalisms Reconsidered. What are the characteristics of contemporary Japanese nationalism? The term "populism" does not capture what is really at stake in national and regional elections around the world this year. In “On Abe Shinzō”, he praised Abe for being “one of the few politicians who is not obsessed with the masochistic view of history” (Tamogami 2013: 9 and ch. Economic development is an important—but not the only—goal that na… What to do, where to go, where to stay, restaurants, hotels, free WiFi and maps, plan your trip here, to travel with confidence and ease when you visit Japan There were 13,070 foreign students studying at national universities in the 2019 academic year, or approximately three percent of the total number of students. Headline news and features on Japan, Asia Pacific and the world, as well as full coverage of domestic and overseas business. Shops, restaurants and tourist attractions in Japan are generally open on national holidays, except on New Year. (The authors fail to discuss the current imperial couple’s attempts to build solidarity with ordinary people, for example during visits to disaster regions when on several occasions the couple knelt down when talking to victims.) Watanabe began writing about historical issues in the mid-1990s, at a time when debate over Japan’s recent history and apologetic rhetoric regarding the war was escalating and the LDP formed its History Examination Committee (see above). Japan’s choices in a changing Asia will define the region’s future and will have tremendous impact on U.S. policy in Asia. He co-edited with J. Victor Koschmann, Pan-Asianism in Modern Japanese History (Routledge, 2007), with Wolfgang Schwentker, The Power of Memory in Modern Japan (Global Oriental, 2008), and with Christopher W. A. Szpilman, Pan-Asianism: A Documentary History (Rowman & Littlefield, 2011). A round 5,000 Japanese nationalists assembled in Tokyo on November 6 to demonstrate against China and to protest Tokyo’s cautious approach to a territorial dispute between China and Japan. In the discussions around the draft constitution drawn up by the LDP in 2012 (for an excellent analysis of this draft, see Repeta 2016), advocates of constitutional reform insisted that the granting of rights should be dependent on the fulfilling of certain duties.

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