After May 9, 1945, approximately 203,000 troops of Army Group Courland began to be moved to Soviet prison camps to the east. In ancient times the Curonians, a pagan tribe, inhabited Courland. Until 1737 the head of the Duchy of Courland was the former master of the Livonian Order, G. Kettler, and his descendants; in 1737, Biron [the favorite of Empress Anne of Russia] took over. BM01084Am.jpg 304 × 480; 35 KB. Katharina Friederike Wilhelmine Benigna (1781–1839), Princess of Courland, Duchess of Sagan, eldest daughter of last Duke, born 8 February 1781 in Mitau, Duchy of Courland and Semigallia; died 29 November 1839 in Vienna. As a parallel political movement under the German military administration, Baltic Germans began a process of forming provincial councils between September 1917 and March 1918. The most crucial one was the Second Northern War between Sweden and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that started in 1655. Gvido Pētersons, 29 June 1999. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). The Duchy was one of the smallest European nations to colonize overseas territories, establishing short-lived outposts on the Caribbean islands of Tobago and Trinidad and at the mouth of the Gambia River in Africa on what was then known as James Island. Although nominally a vassal state of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the dukes operated autonomously. Dorothea (1793–1862), youngest daughter of last Duke, wife of Edmond de Talleyrand-Périgord (1787–1872), nephew of the French statesman Talleyrand, becoming Talleyrand's devoted attendant, political aide, and possible lover. In the 18th century Russia acquired great influence over the Duchy. It might be outdated or ideologically biased. After World War I, Courland became a part of the newly formed nation of Latvia, November 18, 1918. The largest city is Liepāja, the third largest city in Latvia. Courland, also spelled Kurland, Latvian Kurzeme, region on the Baltic seacoast, located south of the Western Dvina River and named after its inhabitants, the Latvian tribe of Curonians (Kurs, Cori, Cours; Latvian: Kursi). Courland is one of the historical and cultural regions of Latvia. Duchy of Courland and Semigallia: | | | Duchy of Courland and Semigallia | | ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. Courland 1561-1641. After loss of entitlement to dukedom, he … Gotthard von Kettler (1517- 1587), the last Master of the Livonian Order and the first Duke of Courland and Semigallia from 1562. [1], In October 1918, the Chancellor of Germany, Prince Maximilian of Baden, proposed to have the military administration in the Baltic replaced by civilian authority. Colonel-General Heinz Guderian, the Chief of the German General Staff, pleaded with Adolf Hitler to allow evacuation of the troops in Courland by sea for use in the defense of Germany. Wilhelmine is mainly known for her relationship with Klemens Metternich, statesman of the Austrian Empire. In 1795, the last Duke, Peter von Biron, ceded the Duchy to the Russian Empire. Maria Amalia of Courland (387 words) no match in snippet view article find links to article Princess Maria Anna Amalia of Courland (12 June 1653 – 16 June 1711) was a landgravine of Hesse-Kassel through her marriage on 21 May 1673 to her first A front was established along a line stretched between Riga, Daugavpils and Baranovitch. The area comprises 27,286 km² (10,535 sq.mi. Courland District (which included parts of Semigallia) was made one of three districts of the region, which also came to be known as Ober Ost. On March 15 Wilhelm II proclaimed the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia a "free and sovereign state", but did not assume the title of the Duke of Courland. In 1935, Courland had an area of 13,210 square kilometres (5,099 sq mi) and a population of 292,659 making it the least populous of the provinces.[4]. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Courland became part of independent Latvia once more and it remains so to this day. The Jelgava plain divides Courland into two parts, the western side, which is fertile and densely inhabited, except in the north, and the eastern side, less fertile and thinly inhabited. Thus in 1230 the Curonian king Lammekinus (Lamikis) made peace directly with the papal legate. It existed from 1228 to the 1560s, when it was dismembered during the Livonian Wars. Courland is one of the historical and cultural regions in western Latvia. History. Duchy of Courland. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was a duchy in the Baltic region.It existed from 1562 through 1795. Russian Governors of Courland AD 1795 - 1915. Iron and limestone were the chief minerals; a little amber was found on the coast. Duke Jacob was captured by Swedish army in 1658-1660. The region of Piltene, owned by the head of the Church of Courland, was regarded as the bishop's private property. 123 years had passed since it annexed by the Russian Empire. Jacob Kettler (German: Jakob von Kettler; 28 October 1610 1 January 1682) was a Baltic German Duke of the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (1641 1682). After World War I, Courland became a part of the newly formed nation of Latvia, November 18, 1918. With their backs to the Baltic Sea, they remained trapped in what became known as the Courland Pocket, blockaded by the Red Army and by the Red Baltic Fleet. Friedrich controlled the eastern part, Semigalia(Zemgale), with his residence in Mitau (Jelgava). He was a very energetic man, built up a navy of 61 ships and pursued a colonial policy; Courlanders built FORT JAKOB on the Gambia river in West Africa (1651) and another colony on TOBAGO in 1652, attempting to get a share in the African slave trade. At this time the group consisted of the remnants of some 31 divisions. Duchy of Courland and Semigallia. Although Courland is not an administrative entity today, the Courland (Kurzeme) Planning Region, with an area of 13,596 square kilometres (5,249 sq mi) and a population of 301,621 in 2008, includes much of the traditional region. Several objective reasons and circumstances led to downfall and loss of wealth and newly acquired colonies. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia started to exist in 1561 by splitting of Livonia confederation. Of the whole, 79% were Latvians, 8.4% Baltic Germans, about 8% Jews,[3] 1.4% Russians, 1% Lithuanians, 1% Poles, and some Livonians. Duchy of Courland and Semigalliaball was born as a 2ball, later adopted by Baltsball, Livonian Orderball and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealthball.Courland was the smallest colonial power, as he had land in what is now The Gambia and Guyana. However, some 200,000 German troops held out in Courland. Wilhelm recognised the duchy as a German vassal that same month. 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During World War I, the German Army had occupied the Courland Governorate of the Russian Empire by the autumn of 1915. On 18 November 1918, Latvia proclaimed its independence and on 7 December 1918, the German military handed over authority to the pro-German Latvian Provisional Government headed by Kārlis Ulmanis. However, the duchy was absorbed on 22 September 1918 by the United Baltic Duchy. Bm02211am.jpg 314 × 480; 64 KB. Duchy of Courland was established in the 16th century as a duchy ruled by German nobility which descended from the times of the Order of Livonia but having a majority of Latvian population. 75% of the population belonged to the prevailing denomination, Lutheranism; the rest belonged to the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches. When Gotthard Kettler died in 1587, his sons, Friedrichand Wilhelm, became the dukes of Courland. After the October Revolution, the elected Estonian Provincial Assembly declare… Latvia eventually signed a cease-fire with Germany on 15 July 1920, and the Treaty of Riga of 11 August ended the war. The historic castle of the Livonian Order (which became the residence of the Dukes of Courland) is visible in the foreground Nowadays, the legacy of Maurice is long forgotten in Europe. Duchy of Courland. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was a semi-independent duchy that existed from 1561 until 1795, encompassing the areas of Courland and Semigallia. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia had been created in 1561 by Gotthard Kettler, last master of the Livonian Order, and had been ruled by his descendants until the dynasty died out in 1737. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia at the time of Maurice (1740) [Image: grobina.blogspot.com] This is where Maurice of Saxony, a German nobleman, soldier of fortune and lothario, as well as the illegitimate son of King Augustus II of Poland (the oldest of 354 acknowledged with this distinction), enters the fray. The large estates conducted agriculture with skill and scientific knowledge. Life Kettler was born in Goldingen (Kuldîga). After the German Revolution on 18 November 1918, Latvia proclaimed independence and on 7 December, the German military handed over authority to the Latvian national government headed by Kārlis Ulmanis.[2]. BM01147Am.jpg 300 × 480; 37 KB. Courland's elevation never rises more than 213 m (700 ft) above sea level. (at1) Although nominally a vassal state, the dukes operated autonomously*… During World War I, German Armies had occupied the Courland Governorate of Russian Empire by the autumn of 1915. Courland Governorate, Governorate of Livonia, Governorate of Estonia of Russian Empire before the 1917 February Revolution. They divided the Duchy into two parts in 1596. Mitau, the capital of the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (now Jelgava, Latvia). Wilhelm II. It was proclaimed on 8 March 1918, in the German-occupied Courland Governorate by a Landesrat composed of Baltic Germans, who offered the crown of the once-autonomous Duchy to Kaiser Wilhelm II, despite the existen The duchy was created in 1561 after the defeat of the Livonian Order during the Livonian War, when the Master of Livonian Order sought after the protection of the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. Although nominally a vassal state of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth , the dukes operated autonomously. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia started to exist in 1561 by splitting of Livonia confederation. The Duchy of Courland and Semigalliaball was a vassal of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealthball.He also had colonies. On 5 August 1940, the Soviet Union annexed the region along with the rest of Latvia which was made a constituent republic of the USSR, the Latvian SSR. The center of the Duchy of Courland was Mitau (Jelgava). The United Baltic Duchy was nominally recognized as a sovereign state[citation needed] by the Kaiser only on September 22, 1918, half a year after Soviet Russia had formally relinquished all authority over its former Imperial Baltic provinces to the German Empire in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Period of success and prosperity in the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia did not last long, just about a decade. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was a duchy in the Baltic region that existed from 1561 to 1569 as a vassal state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and from 1569 to 1726 of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom, incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by Sejm in 1726. However, all this time Duchy of Courland was the point of interest for both Sweden and Poland. 35,011 in 1897); Liepāja (Libau) (pop. It had its own empire.One of its colonies was modern day Trinidad and Tobago. In the 3rd Polish Partition of 1795, It was transformed into Courland Gubernia; Stift Pilten was annexed. The territory of the historic Duchy of Courland and Semigallia became part of Terra Mariana in the course of the conquest of the latter by the Brethren of the Sword in the 13th century. In 1944 the Red Army lifted the siege of Leningrad and re-conquered the Baltic area along with much of Ukraine and Belarus. The duchy was formed after the Livonian Confederation was dissolved during the "Livonian Wars", and it was nominally a vassal state of Poland-Lithuania. Courland remained part of the Latvian SSR within the Soviet Union following World War II. Hitler refused, and ordered the Wehrmacht, Waffen-SS, Luftwaffe and Kriegsmarine forces in Courland to continue the defence of the area. Neither state, however, had any recognition other than by the German Empire. With the Third Partition of Poland-Lithuania, the duchy of Courland ceases to exist. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was a semi-independent duchy that existed from 1561 until 1795, encompassing the areas of Courland and Semigallia. By January 1919, much of Courland had been overrun by the Bolsheviks' Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic but the provisional government with the aid of German forces pushed back and took back Courland by April. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia existed from 1561 as part of the Grand Duchy of Livonia, and later became a part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569, when Poland and Lithuania joined together. Frederick III Wilhelm von Kettler (1692-1711), Duke of Courland and Semigallia from 1698. When combined with Semigallia and Selonia, Courland's northeastern boundary is the river Daugava, which separates it from the regions of Latgale and Vidzeme. The former Bishopric of Courland was directly incorporated into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as the District of Pilten of the Wenden and later Inflanty Voivodeship. Answer of Kaiser Wilchelm to Courlands Land Council to decision about creation of Duchy of Courland in March 8. The largest city is Liepāja, the third largest city in Latvia. Apr 2, 2015 - Duchy of Courland and Semigallia - House of Biron Duke Wilhelm (July 20, 1574 – April 7, 1640, old style) was the youngest son of Duke Gotthard and Duchess Anna. Buy Duchy of Courland and Semigallia by (ISBN: 9786130686963) from Amazon's Book Store. It lies between 55° 45′ and 57° 45′ North and 21° and 27° East. Media in category "Duchy of Courland and Semigallia" The following 14 files are in this category, out of 14 total. As Russian rule in the rest of what is now Latvia began collapsing at the end of World War I, Baltic Germans began a process of forming provincial councils between September 1917 and March 1918, competing with ethnic Latvians' moves toward independence. With the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on 3 March 1918 Bolshevist Russia accepted the loss of the Courland Governorate and by agreements concluded in Berlin on 27 August 1918 the Autonomous Governorate of Estonia and the Governorate of Livonia were severed from Russia.[2]. Wilhelm owned the western part, Courland (Kurzeme), with his residence in Goldingen (Kuldīga). Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. 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